Career Guidance

Elizabeth O Mahony

Indeed – Career Guidance Articles

Articles written for Indeed’s blog

How to write an independent consultant resume

If you’re ready to apply for an independent consultant job, follow these steps to write your resume:

1. Identify why a company needs an independent consultant

One of the first steps in writing a resume for an independent consultant role is to understand the needs and motivations of the company you’re applying with. Write a resume for the job you’re applying for and structure it to showcase why you’re the best candidate for their particular needs. By reading the job description or briefing they may have provided to you, you can usually gain a better understanding of how your skill set matches the primary duties of the role.

2. Write individual resumes for each application

As an independent contractor, you may have the ability to work with multiple clients at the same time, especially if there are many part-time or project-based opportunities available in your industry. As you’re applying for roles, consider writing a new resume for each one. Doing this, you’re more able to target the company’s specific needs and showcase the experiences and skills you have that the company is asking for in the job description.

3. Enhance the readability of your resume

If an employer is looking for an independent contractor, it’s usually because they need someone outside their regular workforce to help solve a problem. It’s important that the hiring manager be able to read and understand your resume, or even scan through it as they review multiple applications for the same position. Consider using a font that’s easy to read and large enough to see while still looking professional. You can also use formatting options, like bullet points and bold headers and styled elements like a sidebar or squared off section that displays your skills better.

Rather than listing all the details of your work history, keep it simple and focus mainly on the key attributes and experiences that relate to the position. This can help keep your resume visibly appealing and easy to review. If some of the extra details are important to you, you can find ways to discuss them during the job interview, if appropriate.

4. Structure your resume with headings

The employer will be better able to identify what you can do for their company if they are reading a well-structured resume. Consider incorporating these headings into your resume:

Professional summary

This section functions as a way for you to share your expertise with the employer, usually in just a couple of sentences. You can share the fields you specialize in, how many years you’ve worked as an independent consultant and the most relevant and important skills you possess as they relate to the position you’re applying for. Because the summary usually appears near the top of your resume, hiring managers are able to scan this section and find out more about you as a candidate and individual to determine if you may be a good fit for what they need.

Related: How To Write a Summary of Qualifications for Your Resume


If an employer is considering hiring an independent consultant, chances are they are looking for certain skills in their applicants that others in their workforce either don’t possess or are unable to use because they are currently working on other projects. Your skills section gives you the space to outline your strongest abilities and attributes. Consider placing the most relevant skills near the top of this section so that any employer who is reviewing your resume can see them clearly.

You can share both hard skills, like specific technologies, tools and software you’re familiar with, and soft skills, like organization and time management, that can help the business you’re applying with succeed. Also, think about the skills you’ve developed as an independent consultant that can help the hiring manager feel more confident in your ability to do well. For example, you may want to list your ability to communicate effectively and complete your tasks with little guidance.

Work history

When sharing your work history, consider using the reverse chronological format. This involves listing your previous employers or clients, starting with the current or most recent position. Include the company name, dates of employment or dates of the specific project you worked on and the responsibilities you had. You can also include key achievements, but consider including details that can help a hiring manager understand how your work directly impacted the company or client you were consulting for.


In your education section, include details like the school name, dates you attended or graduation date and the degree or program you completed. In this section, you can include trade schools, universities, community colleges or even well-known courses specific to your specialty. Consider including any special projects you completed, relevant courses you passed, awards or fellowships you earned and distinctions that help you stand out from other candidates.

5. Proofread your resume

If you’re seeking employment with a company, whether as a full-time team member or independent consultant, it’s important to submit a resume that’s complete, accurate and free of spelling and grammatical errors. Before submitting your resume to your potential client, review it several times to make sure that you’ve shared the most important qualifications and have provided a hiring manager with an understanding of what makes you a viable candidate for their project.

Related: How To Become a Freelance Consultant

Template for an independent consultant resume

You can follow this resume template when writing your own for an independent consultant job:

[Full name]

[Phone number] | [Email address]

Professional Summary

A [brief list of key attributes and personal characteristics that match the role requirements well] skilled in [most relevant tools and software for your industry] seeking a project-based role with [name of company] in order to [description of what you foresee being able to achieve if you earn the position].


  • [Bulleted list of specific skills that relate to the position you’re applying for and any tools, software or programs you have experience with]

Work History

[Job title] | [Company name (if applicable)]

[Dates of project]

  • [Bulleted list of responsibilities and important accomplishments]


[School name] | [Degree or program completed]

[Dates of attendance]

  • [GPA (optional)]
  • [Relevant coursework]
  • [Specific distinctions]

Independent consultant resume example

Here is an example of an independent consultant resume you can use for guidance:

John Burke

555-456-7890 |

Professional Summary

A dedicated problem-solver with experience as an IT consultant seeking a project-based role with the Bank of Stocksville in order to improve the organization’s security and develop a disaster recovery plan that employees can implement during the unexpected.


  • Leadership
  • Problem-solving
  • Cybersecurity
  • Internet security
  • Diagnostic skills
  • Flexibility
  • Hardware and software resolution
  • Application development

Work History

IT Security Consultant | Beauty Laser, LLC

May 2020–Present

  • Implemented security protocols to keep customers’ information secure and free from unwelcome breaches
  • Developed a password protection system and set certain account privileges for each member of the team
  • Trained management on how to use the new system

Software Developer (Consultant) | Redline Applications

June 2019–April 2020

  • Designed multiple applications for a start-up company based on their clients’ specifications and needs
  • Gathered requirements and created a design team and process that the organization can continue to use
  • Wrote documentation for clients
  • Upgraded the company website, which resulted in a 30% increase in website visitors who found the company through online search results


Stocksville College | Bachelor’s of Science in information technology

Graduated: May 2019

  • GPA: 3.8
  • Minor in computer programming


When applying to become an economist or something similar, you need to show employers you have the training and experience for this technical role. The first way you can make a good impression is by tailoring your resume to the economics job you want. By creating a well-written resume, you can show you are an organized and conscientious candidate, which are two essential qualities for this type of role. In this article, we explain what economics resumes are and how to write them, along with a template and example you can use as your guide.

Related: What Does an Economist Do? Duties and Work Environment

What is an economics resume?

An economics resume is an application material that gives employers an overview of your relevant credentials, experiences and skills. While each role and employer may have different requirements, you can usually make your resume a one-page, well-organized document. Typically, those applying to be economists, market research analysts, financial managers or economics professors create a resume that highlights their economics and market research abilities and background.

The goal of your economics resume is to show employers you are the right candidate for their job opening. When applying to be an economist or something else in this field, you want to show you have the technical skills to forecast economic and market trends while also having the people skills to work well with others. Economics careers require you to have a deep knowledge of different economic and financial topics, making it important to showcase your education and training on your resume.

Related: Economist Cover Letter Sample

How to write an economics resume

Follow these steps to write a professional-looking economics resume:

1. Create a professional summary

Your professional summary is a brief section at the top of your resume where you can highlight your most relevant economics skills, experiences and achievements. In one to three sentences, try to capture the hiring manager’s attention by showing you have the right background for their role. Using interesting adjectives to describe yourself as a professional. Here are a few that might be relevant for an economics role:

  • Analytical
  • Attentive
  • Curious
  • Detail-oriented
  • Inspired
  • Intuitive
  • Knowledgeable

Related: Resume Summary vs. Resume Objective: What Are the Differences?

2. Showcase your credentials

Along with your higher education, use your resume to list any important credentials that make you qualified for such a technical position. Consider including any special certifications or training programs you have completed. Add any academic designations or awards you have earned to show you are highly knowledgeable about this field. You can even include any additional training you are currently pursuing to show you’re committed to continued learning.

3. Outline your experiences

Under each of your professional experiences, include three to five bullet points that explain your most important responsibilities or accomplishments. When including accomplishments, use quantifiable data, such as statistics or dollar amounts, to help employers understand the value you produced in previous roles.

When choosing what experiences to include on your resume, carefully read through the job description. Tailor each experience to the job you want by using relevant keywords and phrases that might capture a hiring manager’s attention. Essentially, you want to think about how your experiences translate into the new role you want.

Related: Understanding Economics: Definition and Application

4. List your relevant skills

The skills section of the job description can help you decide which of your own skills to include on your economics resume. While soft skills, such as communication, problem-solving and critical thinking, are important for an economic professional to have, you also want to share some technical skills you have. These include specific processes and techniques you know how to use. You may even list some relevant computer programs, software and other economic tools you have experience using.

5. Proofread for errors

Those in economic roles need to be highly attentive to details. As you look at market trends or assess your client’s finances, it’s important that you can catch minor errors or discrepancies. That’s why it’s so essential to make sure your resume is free from any errors, helping you prove you can pay attention to details. Once writing your resume, carefully read through it for any typos or grammar errors. Make sure the format of your resume is easy to follow, with headers, bolding and bullet points. Ask a friend or family member to proofread your resume and offer feedback.

Economics resume template

Here is a template of an economics resume:

[Your name]

[Your address]

[Your phone number]

[Your email address]

Professional summary

[One to three sentences that give an overview of your relevant skills, experiences and achievements as an economics professional.]


[Name of school]

[Degree, major]

[Graduation date]

[Other educational accomplishments]

Work experience

[Job title]

[Company name]


[Employment dates]

  • [Job duties]
  • [Job duties]
  • [Job duties]


  • [Skill]
  • [Skill]
  • [Skill]

Economics resume example

Here is an example of an economics resume:

Gina Gomez

254 Apple Way


Professional summary

Detail-oriented economist with over a decade of experience writing for the Local Inquirer, covering topics such as market demand, rising inflation and the housing market. Won a Pulitzer Prize for journalistic work covering the Great Recession.


University of Wisconsin—Madison

B.S., Economics

May 2010

Work experience

Economist consultant

Econ Consulting

Franklin, WI

June 2020-Present

  • Consult major business leaders, helping them make important business decisions based on current and future market trends.
  • Research and report on economic trends, publishing five articles a week.
  • Assess internal operations, helping the company increase its profits 10% in Q1 of 2021.

Economics journalist

Local Inquirer

Milwaukee, WI

May 2010-June 2020

  • Researched, wrote and edited compelling articles for the economics section of the print and digital newspaper.
  • Met with local business leaders to learn more about several industries, such as real estate, manufacturing and energy.
  • Trained new economic writers on AP style and best writing practices for this publication.

Financial analytics intern

Finance Biz

Madison, WI

April 2009-May 2010

  • Worked under the guidance of the senior financial analyst, learning the processes of the company and needs of the clients.
  • Organized spreadsheets, inputting data reports from three different clients.
  • Built a capstone presentation about current market trends, with a special focus on the housing market.


  • Problem-solving
  • Statistical analysis
  • Research and reporting

Please note that none of the companies mentioned in this article are affiliated with Indeed.


If you’re interested in pursuing an entry-level software testing career, consider writing a functional resume. This resume can highlight your skills, education, certifications and other qualification that make you a strong fit for the role.

 In this article, we review what a software testing resume for a fresher is, explore how to write one and share a template and example of a strong software testing resume for a fresher.

What is a software testing resume for a fresher?

A software testing resume for a fresher is a document that displays the skills, education and other qualifications of an entry-level software tester to prove they’re the best fit for a role. Most freshers are recent graduates or are switching to a new career. Because they have little background in their field, a software testing resume for a fresher typically focuses more on their skills, education and other traits that make them a strong candidate.

Software testers typically design scenarios to test the effectiveness and usability of various software systems. They may conduct these software tests and create reports on the success of the test and improvements for the production team to add to the software system. Other common job duties of a software tester include:

  • Reviewing the company’s software requirements carefully to understand the type of test scenarios to build
  • Creating test scenarios to catch errors that don’t meet the requirements and could affect the usability of the system
  • Gathering and analyzing test results to search for bugs, fixes, errors or database impacts
  • Creating detailed reports of the results collected from the tests and detailing fixes and notes to add to the system for the design team to review
  • Attending software design reviews to suggest potential requirements or design elements and provide potential solutions to common software issues

Related: How To Get Testing Fresher Jobs

How to write a software testing fresher resume

Since you’re creating an entry-level resume with little to no experience, consider using a skills-based resume that focuses closely on the strengths and qualities that make you the ideal candidate for the position. Follow these steps to write an effective software testing fresher resume:

1. Review the job description for the role

Before adding skills and expertise to your resume, review the job description for keywords, which are phrases and words used to describe the company’s ideal candidate. You can typically find these keywords repeated throughout the description, particularly in the qualifications sections. Consider printing this job description and highlighting these keywords to ensure you include them on your resume. Including keywords in your skills, objective and work duties sections can capture the hiring manager’s attention and show that you have the qualification they’re looking for.

2. Select your format and list your contact information

Your resume format is the style and order you choose for your resume’s content. Since you’re applying for an entry-level role, it’s best to select a resume format that highlights your strengths and qualities. Consider using a functional resume format, as it emphasizes your skills by listing them first. Add your contact information in the top-left-hand corner. Write your name, email address, phone number and city and state on separate lines.

3. Write an objective statement

Your objective statement describes your career goals, skills and characteristics that make you the best fit for the role. The objective can be one to two sentences long to explain your strengths and abilities, along with the value you may bring to the position. Try to use this section to explain the qualities that make you stand out from other applicants.

4. Highlight your hard and soft skills

Create a separate section near the top of your resume to highlight the hard and soft skills you possess. Hard skills are the technical strengths you learned from educational courses, previous roles or training. Soft skills are natural abilities and traits you have that you can develop further. Review the job description again to locate the highlighted keywords and list them in your skills section. Including these skills shows hiring managers that you have the aptitudes needed to work effectively in the role.

Since software testing candidates regularly use technical knowledge and abilities to complete tasks, hiring managers may search for advanced technical skills on your resume. College computer science programs can help you develop important technical skills. You can also take online tutorials or training sessions to gain additional software knowledge and abilities to list on your resume. Impressive skills for software testing candidates to list on their resumes include:

  • Data and analytical skills
  • Organization and time-management abilities
  • Database and queries knowledge
  • Test management tools knowledge
  • Defect tracking tool abilities
  • Critical thinking and problem solving skills
  • Advanced knowledge of software design and testing methodologies
  • Programming and coding skills

Related: Quality Assurance Skills: Definition and Examples

5. Add your academic institution

In your education section, list the institution you graduated from, the degree received and the dates you attended the school. If you earned a GPA of 3.5 or higher, you can include it in this section as well. Most employers prefer software testing candidates to hold at least a bachelor’s degree in computer science or a related field. You can also earn your master’s degree to prove your advanced knowledge and to make you stand out from other candidates.

6. List certifications or awards

Include certifications, awards or any additional credentials that relate to the role. You can list any clubs or organizations you joined in school to prove your teamwork or leadership abilities. Listing technical awards can also show that you have advanced software skills to apply in the role. If you’ve earned any software certifications, list them here with the date you earned them and the location. Holding several software certifications shows hiring managers you have advanced technical capabilities and are fluent in the software systems or coding languages needed for the role.

7. Include any relevant experience

If you have any relevant professional experience related to the role, you can include this in another section. This can be volunteer experience spent testing software systems or any internships you participated in where you gained valuable industry or technical knowledge. If you have little professional background, consider including this experience near the bottom of the resume. As you list the job duties completed, be sure to use action verbs to describe the tasks completed in brief bullet points. Use numbers when possible to measure any achievements you provided for the company.

Related: 8 Automation Testing Interview Questions (With Examples)

8. Proofread for grammar, spelling and formatting

Proofread your resume to make sure it’s professional and free of any grammar or spelling errors. Try to include a font style that’s easy to read, like Times New Roman, Helvetica or Arial at around 10- to 12-point font sizes. Adjust the margins to around 1 to 1.5 inches. Your resume should have plenty of white space to give it a clean look and to make it easier for the hiring manager to read.

Related: 27 Proofreading Tips That Will Improve Your Resume

Software testing fresher resume template

Use this template to help you write a strong software testing resume for a fresher:

[First and last name]

[City, state]

[Phone number]

[Email address]


[One to two sentences describing your career goals and any milestones you plan to accomplish during your career at the company. List any relevant technical, soft or hard skills you may apply directly to the role.]


  • [Technical, hard or soft skill 1]
  • [Technical, hard or soft skill 2]
  • [Technical, hard or soft skill 3]


[Name of the academic institution you attended], [title of degree you earned]

[Dates you attended this school] [GPA, if it was a 3.5 or higher]


[Certification title] [date you earned the certification]


[Job title or internship title]

[Name of company you worked for]

[City and state,] [month and year you served in this role]

  • [Duty or achievement you had while working at the position]
  • [Duty or achievement you had while working at the position]
  • [Duty or achievement you had while working at the position]

Software testing fresher resume example

Here is an example of an effective software testing resume for a fresher you can use when creating your own:

Emily Juarez

Kansas City, Missouri

(555) 555-5555


Extremely driven and motivated recent college graduate hoping to earn a software testing role at an IT company to enhance my expertise in programming, quality control and communication.


  • Enhanced development abilities
  • Troubleshooting and quality assurance skills
  • Data and analytical capabilities
  • Advanced knowledge of design principles
  • Problem solving and critical thinking skills
  • Fluent in Java coding languages
  • Scripting and documentation


University of Kansas, Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering

Lawrence, Kansas, August 2016 to May 2020, 3.6 GPA


Certified Software Testing Professional, August 2020

ICAgile Certified Professional, November 2020


Quality assurance testing summer intern

Lawrence IT Solutions

Lawrence, Kansas, May 2019 – September 2019

  • Evaluated testing results and prepared reports for software testers to review
  • Locating bugs and tracking potential software fixes;
  • Executing new testing software systems after receiving approvals from testers

Please note that the companies mentioned in this article are not affiliated with Indeed.


What is a broadcasting technician?

A broadcasting technician is the person who sets up and operates the audio and video equipment for radio and television broadcasts or live-streamed events. Depending on the size of the station where they work or the event being streamed, they may be assigned only specific tasks, or they may be responsible for every aspect of the job.

What does a broadcasting technician do?

A broadcasting technician manages the equipment used during radio and television broadcasts, live-streamed events and video creation. They are responsible for setting up the equipment they use and storing it safely when the event is over. After the event is over, they may be required to edit the material they have recorded.

Specializing in the audiovisual aspects of a broadcast or recording, broadcast technicians work to make the show seen by the viewers more enjoyable and give the audience a better experience. They often work as audiovisual engineers to mix music, ensure voices are audible and create sound effects while also ensuring the clarity and quality of any visual aspects of the event being broadcast. Ensuring that the signal is strong enough for the broadcast is another of their responsibilities.

Broadcasting technicians traditionally worked for radio and television, but in today’s world, they may also work on recording and live-streaming sports events or concerts. Some even provide their services to schools. 

Other broadcasting technicians work in recording studios, on film sets and in the movie production process. Using mixing boards, monitors and electrical equipment, they ensure the viewers and listeners of today are enjoying the broadcast.

How to become a broadcasting technician

If you would like to pursue a career as a broadcasting technician, here are the steps you should take:

1. Obtain a high school diploma

The minimum requirement to become a broadcasting technician is a high school diploma. To pursue a career in this field, you should demonstrate proficiency in math, technology, and science. 

2. Pursue higher education and certifications

Many positions require additional qualifications. An associate’s degree, a bachelor’s degree or even a master’s degree may be necessary when applying for some jobs.

The most popular degrees for broadcasting technicians include:

  • Communications Technology
  • Radio and Television Broadcasting Technology 
  • Electrical Engineering
  • Audiovisual Communications Technologies

In addition to or in lieu of a degree, consider pursuing certification from the Society of Broadcast Engineers.

3. Gain practical experience

Some employers also look for practical experience in the field. There are a number of ways an applicant can satisfy this requirement. For instance, experience can be gained through volunteering projects, such as managing the audiovisual components at a summer camp or at school performances. You could also put together a portfolio or highlight reel that showcases projects you have worked on. Pursuing an associate’s degree or completing a training program in audiovisual skills can also give you some practical experience in video production management and editing.

Read more: How To Get Job Experience (With Tips)

4. Update your resume

Once your training is complete, be sure to update your resume to reflect your new skill set, qualifications and practical experience. A robust resume helps you show employers that you are ready for your new career.

Related: 10 Steps for Building a Resume

Salary and job outlook

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the median pay for a broadcasting technician in the U.S. is $45,510 per year, or $21.88 per hour. In addition to this salary, broadcasting technicians typically receive medical benefits as well as a contribution to their retirement fund.

The career outlook for a broadcasting technician is very favorable, as the use of audiovisual methods of communication increases globally. Several trends contribute to the strong job outlook for broadcasting technicians:

  • Corporate marketing: Large companies are spending more of their marketing budgets on audiovisual advertising.
  • Podcasts: The increasing number of people creating podcasts provides ample opportunities for broadcasting technicians to market their services to those who do not possess this crucial skillset.
  • Video conferencing: Video conferencing, for which the skills of a broadcasting technician are often required, has increased in popularity in recent years and should continue to do so into the future.
  • Special effects: As filmmakers use more sophisticated technology to satisfy audiences who call for ever more realistic or exaggerated movie scenes, the role of the broadcasting technician increases in importance.
  • New stations: Broadcast technician openings are created as new radio and television stations open, and as the movie section continues to grow.
  • Large community events: Schools, college, and community halls may now require to the services of a broadcast technician for large events.

The BLS predicts a growth rate of 9% in work availability for broadcasting technicians in the period from 2019 to 2029, making this one of the fastest-growing industries.

Read more: How much does a Broadcast Engineer make in the United States?                                                

Skills for a broadcasting technician

Broadcast technicians need a combination of hard and soft skills to succeed.

Practical skills

Examples of practical skills for broadcast engineers include:

  • Skills acquired while following a degree or certification
  • Skills in using Adobe Systems, Adobe After Effects and Adobe Illustrator
  • Familiarity with Photoshop software
  • Experience with Microsoft Office, including Excel
  • Ability to use audio mixing consoles
  • Familiarity with sound-effect generators
  • Ability to use audio and video patch bays
  • Competence in working with master control switches

Soft skills and physical requirements

Broadcast technicians will also benefit from the following soft skills and physical qualifications:

  • Problem-solving skills
  • Communication skills
  • The ability to work as part of a team
  • Physical stamina for lifting equipment
  • The ability to work at heights
  • Manual dexterity for dealing with equipment parts
  • Good eyesight
  • Willingness to take a course in workplace safety should the need arise


Teachers work at every point in the education system, using their skills to help their students. Community colleges give their students an opportunity to further their education, progress their career or develop skills for personal reasons. The skilled community college teacher helps them realize their ambitions.

 In this article, we explain what a community college teacher does and how to become one.

What is a community college teacher?

A community college teacher works in two-year colleges teaching post-secondary students. As the job title suggests, their students differ from students in middle or high school..

Their students are adult learners who have returned to school for career progression or to prepare for advancing to a 4-year school. Students attend community colleges voluntarily meaning they are motivated and can often be older than the teacher. They tend to look to their teacher as a friend or mentor who is helping them meet their care

Full time and part-time teachers

Full-time community college teachers can teach daily and have a heavy workload. Others teach on an adjunct basis where they work part-time and for a set number of hours per week. They also teach summer classes or additional courses when the need arises.

Part-time teachers can also continue to work in other jobs, sometimes combining those jobs with part-time teaching.

Related  How to become a teacher

What does a community college teacher do?

The community college teacher’s work involves preparing their classes and delivering the material to their students. Classes have to be planned, the teacher has to set assignments relevant to the classroom teaching, and develop projects for students to work on. They also make themselves available to the students for any help they require with the subject. Monitoring and mentoring students is an important part of the work carried out in community colleges.

Opportunity to teach a broad range of courses

Community college teachers are employed 

to teach a wide range of subjects. They teach academic subjects or vocational subjects such as interior design or nursing, where they use life skills they have gained to help their students. Vocational courses are usually non-transferable. At this level, the community school teacher is helping students to gain life skills. Academic courses can be transferable to other colleges, and the community college teacher who teaches these prepares students for attendance at higher-level colleges. 

Teacher qualifications

Teaching these subjects, a community college teacher at a minimum needs to have a bachelor’s degree in their chosen subject, although many community colleges insist on their teachers having a masters.

Part of their work involves communicating with their colleagues and school management. They need to attend academic conferences. They also do some research and work on keeping up to date with changes in their subject area.

 Read more How to become a teaching assistant

How to become a community college teacher

1. Get a Bachelor’s degree.

Colleges insist on their teachers having advanced degrees and a bachelors is the first step to getting a master’s degree. 

 2. Get a masters degree

A masters degree is required to teach in some community colleges. Some colleges prefer their teachers to have a P.hd. It is advisable to check out the qualifications required at a college you want to teach in. The teacher is advised to get a graduate degree in the subject they want to teach. 

3. Get teaching experience

 Some graduate colleges allow the student teacher to get teaching experience during their programs. Some of this work can be as teaching assistants. Gaining teaching experience makes the student-teacher more employable and introduces them to the profession.

4. Get certification

 Legally certification is unnecessary but if an applicant doesn’t have prior teaching experience, certification can help in the job search. Some schools offer graduate-level certificates for teachers, and many of these can be completed online. Certification courses offer a combination of lectures on teaching methodology and classroom experience.

A community college teaching certificate is a graduate program. To take the program, complete a master’s degree in a subject you want to teach. A certification course also involves an internship where the teacher can gain experience and can put the methodology they have learned into practice.

5. Apply for jobs

The newly qualified community college teacher is now ready to apply for jobs. Check out where available jobs are listed. When viewing a job posting, carefully assess what skills other than subject knowledge you can bring to the post. Preparing a carefully crafted resume is essential at this point.

 Read more How to write a resume

Skills needed for a community college teacher

Community college teachers need to be familiar with the subject they are teaching and willing to keep up to date with any changes in the material and teaching methodologies. Because of this, they require skills such as:

  • Empathy with people in the community college-age group.
  • Ability to act as a teacher, friend, and mentor.
  • Strong communication skills
  • Approachable and able to relate well to their students.
  • Tolerance of differing opinions
  • Patience with learners
  • A passion for the subject they are teaching
  • Enjoy the learning process and enjoy conveying information to their students.
  • Leadership skills to manage groups of students

Read more How to become a high school teacher.        

Salary and job outlook for a community college teacher

The community college teacher’s salary depends on whether the teacher is full-time or part-time. The reported salary for a full-time teacher is $40,190 per year. Salaries depend on the teacher’s level of qualification, their field of study and their length of employment.

 Full-time teachers earn holiday pay and the other benefits that come with being an employee in the district or state they are working in. Part-time teachers  are paid on an hourly basis, with the rate ranging from $12 to $20 per hour.

According to employment predictions job opportunities for community college teachers will increase 9% from 2019 to 2029, which is a higher growth rate than other occupations. The growth rate changes depending on the subjects  Business teachers’ job opportunities should increase by16%, while growth in health-related teaching positions should be23%. Nursing instructors should see a growth of 20% in employment opportunities.


Real estate lawyers play important roles in the purchase and sale of property. They make sure property transactions follow the laws and that ownership transfers from seller to buyer in a legally binding way. Their skills and knowledge help protect all parties involved in a transaction and allow the property market to function securely. In this article, we explain how to become a real estate lawyer and their responsibilities, requirements and salary.

What is a real estate lawyer? 

A real estate lawyer has a law degree and specializes in the legal aspects of property transactions. They work in both legal offices and courthouses. When a property transaction occurs, the vendor or buyer employs a real estate lawyer to ensure the transaction follows the laws. They review residential or commercial properties as well as undeveloped land. They also work for landlords or tenants leasing properties.

Real estate lawyers’ work extends beyond ensuring property transactions proceed smoothly. They also interfere in property disputes when one party fails to honor their side of an agreement. These situations often require a real estate lawyer’s help to solve the problem and represent either of the parties in the resulting court case.

Real estate lawyers understand all the laws people must follow in all matters that involve buying, selling or renting property. One of their job responsibilities is explaining property law for their clients. They also demonstrate a high level of ethics. 

Related: Real Estate Attorney vs. Realtor

What does a real estate lawyer do?

A real estate lawyer performs any legal duties involved with a property transaction. When a residential or commercial property is about to transfer from one owner to another, the real estate lawyer prepares documents for both the seller and the buyer to sign. They perform research to make sure the vendor has rightful ownership of the property and that the property is free of debt. They also search for the legal title deeds to the property.

Once a real estate lawyer confirms a property’s sale is legal, they get both parties to agree to and sign the documents. Real estate lawyers follow a similar process with property rentals and provide the landlord and tenant with leasing contracts to sign.

If two parties disagree about a property contract, the real estate lawyer helps negotiate a settlement between the sides. They identify the cause of the conflict and find a resolution. If the two parties cannot agree, they prepare for a court hearing.

Related: Learn About Being an Attorney

How to become a real estate lawyer

Aspiring real estate lawyers need to complete a long course of study ending with the bar examination. Follow these steps to become a real estate lawyer:

1. Earn a bachelor’s degree

Complete a four-year undergraduate degree to prepare to apply for law school. Real estate lawyers commonly major in legal studies but can earn nearly any degree, including business or economics.

2. Pass the LSAT

After earning your bachelor’s degree, you need to take the Law School Admissions Test (LSAT). The LSAT is an examination that tests your critical and analytical abilities. Passing this examination is required to apply to American Bar Association-approved law schools.

Related: How To Prepare for Law School (With Tips)

3. Attend law school

Once you gain admission to law school, you spend the next three to four years studying for a Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree that allows you to practice law in the United States. In your last year or two of study, you can specialize in a specific area of law. This is when you can choose to study for a career as a real estate lawyer. While studying for your J.D. you need to:

  1. Complete 90 credit hours and earn a grade point average of 2.0
  2. Complete all your courses
  3. Fulfill the in-residence requirement
  4. Meet the writing intensive course requirements 
  5. Fulfill the experiential course requirements

While in law school, get experience by doing internships at law firms. Employers expect lawyers applying for entry-level jobs to have skills in negotiating contracts and real estate transaction preparation, which you can gain during internships. 

4. Take the bar exam

After you graduate from law school, you need to pass the bar exam to get the attorney’s license required to practice law in the U.S. You should take the bar examination in the state you plan to work in. Bar exam formats vary by state but typically last six hours and include multiple-choice and essay questions.

5. Find a job

Many states have real estate lawyers’ associations that help new graduates network and learn about career opportunities and developments in the real estate legal field. Join these associations, and apply for entry-level real estate lawyer jobs.

6. Continue learning

After earning a law degree and passing the bar exam, take courses and attend seminars and conferences regularly to refresh your knowledge and stay up to date with new legal developments. Many employers expect real estate lawyers to pursue these continuing education opportunities themselves.

Related: How To Become a Lawyer

Salary and job outlook

Real estate lawyers earn an average base salary of $53,803 per year, according to Indeed Salaries. This figure depends on the location, size and success of the law firm. If you are a self-employed real estate lawyer, factors that can affect your income include:

  • The income level of your clients
  • Where your business is located
  • Your ability to gain new clients 
  • Economic factors

Real estate lawyers are typically busiest and earn the most money during good economic periods with strong housing markets. Those who work for the government can expect less fluctuation in salary. If you work for the government or a private firm, you can expect to also receive retirement benefits and health insurance. If you own a real estate law business, you are responsible for purchasing health benefits and calculating your income and savings after deducting business expenses.

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics expects real estate lawyers’ employment prospects to grow 4% between 2019 and 2029, which is the average for all occupations. People continue to buy and sell homes, and governments continue to process land deals to add to their infrastructure. Developers are among real estate lawyers’ most lucrative clients during strong economies, because they build housing, shopping and business complexes. 

Skills for a real estate lawyer

Real estate lawyers need soft skills that they have naturally and hard skills, such as legal concepts and terminology, that they gain during their education. Skills real estate lawyers commonly need to be successful in their careers include:

  • Communication skills: Real estate lawyers need good verbal communication skills to form working relationships with clients, explain unfamiliar legal concepts and make their cases in court. They also need strong written communication skills when creating legal documents, contracts and memos.
  • Negotiation: These legal professionals spend a significant amount of time negotiating with clients and should have the skills to find resolutions all parties agree to.
  • Social skills: Real estate lawyers should have the interpersonal skills to help clients relax and have confidence in their skills before negotiating a deal or attending a court hearing.
  • Analytical skills: Real estate lawyers read through and assess large amounts of information to determine what is legal or how to resolve a dispute.
  • Investigation: These lawyers perform research and find detailed information about properties, laws and cases.

Real estate lawyers need to keep themselves informed of changing laws and how they affect their clients and cases. To monitor industry changes and keep their skills current, they should participate in networking groups with other lawyers and attend lectures and seminars hosted by legal associations.


Accurate information based on statistics guides the work of many decision-makers. The information provided by statisticians  guides election campaigns, government decisions, sales strategies, athletic training techniques, and financial markets. 

 In this article, we explain how to become a statistician.

What is a statistician?

The statistician sources accurate data. They analyze data using specialized software and reach conclusions from that analysis. The conclusions are then given to others who need accurate information to decide on a strategy they propose taking.

The person who requests the information has a problem to solve. They may want to develop a sales strategy, decide where to locate a business, assess the success of a product, or discover the skills a sports team needs to develop. The statistician provides them with the information they need to form their decisions.

Related: How To Become a Business Consultant  

What does a statistician do?

A statistician works with complex data to gain insights into a situation for their employer. With these insights, the employer can make decisions based on the information the statistician has provided.

Statisticians work in a wide variety of commercial industries. They also work for the government, education, sporting bodies, and for bodies providing humanitarian aid. These organizations and many others, all need accurate statistics to measure their past performance and to determine how they are going to proceed in the future.

With the help of the statistician, a humanitarian agency can assess how well past campaigns in the field have worked. If statistics show they have worked well they can decide to continue with the same strategy. However, if the statistics show a campaign has not been successful, the agency decides on a new strategy.

Manufacturing companies use the work of the statistician in the same fashion to decide on a new product or on the sales strategy for an existing product.

Common tasks for statisticians include:

  • They decide what data is needed to answer the questions raised by the company or organization.
  • They decide how they are going to collect information. The information they need may be on a database in which case they need appropriate software to work with that data.
  • They have to collect data if no accurate data is currently available. They have to decide on the methods they use to gather that data. Surveys, opinion polls, and questionnaires have to be designed. They have to decide on the number of people who must be interviewed for a sample poll. They also have to decide on the geographical, age and economic factors they are going to take into account when taking a sample poll.
  • Once the data is available they have to decide on methods to interpret it
  • Once the information is interpreted and conclusions have been reached they have to find the best way of presenting the results to the person who requested them. Results can be presented in a numerical form, on graphs, charts, or reports.  

Related: How To Become a Database Engineer

How to become a statistician

Take the following steps to become a statistician:

1. Earn a degree

Get an undergraduate degree. A degree with a major in statistics, calculus, linear algebra, or in a subject that involves computational thinking sets the foundation for becoming a statistician. Degrees in math, applied math, computer science, or economics also help. A degree in science is useful for a person who wants to become a biostatistician.

2. Consider an advanced degree

With a bachelor’s or master’s, or both, a statistician is qualified to:

  • Design data collection plans
  • Analyze the data in relation to the project they are working on.
  • Provide summaries of the data collected. Present summaries either numerically or in graph form.
  • A statistician may also want to pursue a doctoral degree. A doctorate qualifies the statistician to do all the work carried out by the person who holds a Master’s but they also:
  • Work on coming up with new methods of summarizing and analyzing data
  • Can teach at university.

3. Get experience

 Experience can be gained through internships. Taking part in data analyst competitions will give the statistician further experience.

4. Get professional certifications

Professional certifications are awarded by the American Statistical Association. For the Graduate Statistician (G Stat) certification statisticians submit their portfolio for review by the association.

For the Accredited Professional Statistician (P Stat) certification they must submit samples of work undertaken and letters of recommendation

5. Prepare to work in a specific area

Statisticians are employed in many areas. Deciding on the field of specialization allows the statistician to concentrate their work and learning on a sector that appeals to them and aligns with their skill set. Some businesses and organizations that employ them include:

  • Finance
  • Marketing
  • Management
  • Health
  • Education
  • Government
  • Pharmaceutical industries
  • Agricultural industries
  • Sports
  • Humanitarian agencies

5. Get a job

Having chosen the field they want to work in, the statistician is ready to take up employment. They are in a position to use their skills in working on data for a range of industries and organizations. Given the number of sectors employing statisticians, the statistician is in a position to select the industry they feel best aligned to.

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Skills needed for a statistician

Statisticians need a wide range of hard and soft skills.

Hard skills related to the work they do include:

  • Computer skills including programming languages such as Python, Java, C/C++
  • Knowledge of searching databases, cloud computing, and machine learning
  • Analytical skills and the ability to interpret analytical tools
  • Technical skills
  • Critical thinking skills
  • Problem-solving skills
  • Math skills especially skills in statistics, calculus, and linear algebra

Soft skills relate to the role they play within the company or organization they work for.

  • Business acumen and a good understanding of the field they are working in. A statistician working for a manufacturing company understands the difficulties businesses face whereas if they are working for a sporting body they understand the technicalities of a particular sport. 
  • Communication skills and the ability to present the results of their data analysis to stakeholders who have little understanding of Math or statistics.
  • Visual skills to help them present information in an easily understood format.
  • The ability to objectively measure the strengths and weaknesses of their own work

Salary and job outlook for a statistician.

The average base salary for a statistician is $98,519 per year. Statisticians and their ability to work with the data that provides information are predicted by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics to see a 35% growth rate in employment opportunities in the decade 2019-2029. This prediction places the statistician’s career among the fastest growing in the economy.  


What is a legal investigator?

Legal investigators collect and prepare material for use by lawyers in trials. Working as staff members in law firms, they source and file the information that pertains to a case.

 Some legal investigators are government employees who prepare defenses and provide legal support to defendants on trial. Other members of the profession work in a private capacity, offering legal investigation services to clients who hire them on a contract basis. Legal investigators are represented by the National Association of Legal Investigators, who comprise the people who help legal teams prepare for a trial as legal assistants to lawyers.

What does a legal investigator do?

A legal investigator’s primary function is gathering and analyzing information that can be used in trials or litigation. As law firm employees, they find the information lawyers rely on in trials and prepare the necessary documentation. The information they collect can relate to the actual incidents that gave rise to the trial or to legalities that could affect the court proceedings.

Tasks performed by legal investigators who work for attorneys

  • Preparing cases for court trials
  • Finding and interviewing witnesses
  • Taking statements
  • Accessing police records and other materials relevant to the case
  • Photographing accident and crime scenes
  • Finding and recommending experts on aspects of the case
  • Preparing legal documents
  • Testifying in court when needed
  • Conducting research on previous trials and accessing legal information the lawyer needs for the  case

Tasks performed by legal investigators who work for the government

All defendants are entitled to legal defense in trials. Without a legal defense, a mistrial can be declared, and a case declared null and void. Here a few of their tasks:

  • Giving an accused person legal representation
  • Being present to guarantee the accused’s constitutional rights
  • Representing a defendant to protect the state from accusations of a mistrial

Tasks performed by legal investigators who work in private practice

The self-employed legal investigator carries out tasks similar to those carried out by the law firm’s legal investigator, such as:

  •  Working as a contractor for a law firm when an increased workflow arises
  • Preparing cases for court trials
  • Finding and interviewing witnesses
  • Taking statements

Related: 20 Legal Career Opportunities

How to become a legal investigator

While there is no formal course of education for a legal investigator, there are several ways you can gain the necessary training.

1. Get a law degree

 A degree in law or experience gained while working in a legal field is considered a good foundation. A bachelor’s degree, while not strictly necessary, can get you started as a legal investigator.

2. Get experience in a legal field

Some legal investigators begin their careers after attending law school or qualifying as a lawyer. Others become legal investigators after first working as paralegals. Having a degree in legal and criminal justice as a foundation can enhance employment prospects.

3. Get certification

Certification for legal investigators is overseen by the National Association of Legal Investigators (NALI). To achieve certification, you’ll undergo a course of study followed by written and oral examinations. They are also required to present a research paper on an investigative subject of their choice.

 Becoming a Certified Legal Investigator (CLI) enhances employment prospects. NALI, established in 1965 in response to the growing interest in becoming a legal investigator, also provides legal investigators with professional support.

 When studying for certification, you’ll acquire the skills and information necessary for the career, including:

  • Legal terminology
  • Ethics
  • Tort law
  • Contract law
  • Methods for conducting legal research
  • Codes of practice within the profession

By the end of a certification course, students will have learned how to gather and analyze information. They will also have learned how to take statements from witnesses. Learning how to prepare evidence for presentation in court is another important component of a certification course.

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Skills and aptitudes for legal investigators

As well as educational qualifications, legal investigators are required to draw on soft skills. As the career involves a lot of interaction with people both in the workplace and with people who could have had difficult experiences, having the following skills can help the legal investigator in the course of their work. 

  • Communication and listening skills for interviewing witnesses
  • Analytical ability to analyze quantities of information
  • Enquiring disposition to search deeper for information
  • Ability to work as part of a team to prepare for a trial
  • Good presentation skills for testifying in court
  • Ability to work well under pressure when working under a deadline
  • Computer skills, such as online information searches and document preparation

Related: Interpersonal Skills: Definitions and Examples

Salary and job outlook for legal investigators

A legal investigator’s income depends on whether they are employed by a law company, the government or in their own practice. Working within a company or for the government, they are in a salaried position with a guaranteed income and the retirement and health care benefits that accompany it. 

Self-employed legal investigators are largely responsible for their own income and paying for benefits they may need. 

Reported salaries of legal investigators in the U.S.

Salaries reported for legal investigators range from $49,752 per year. Government-employed legal investigators are reported to earn $81,990 per year.

Related: Browse top-paying jobs by industry

 Job outlook

The employment growth rate for people working as legal investigators is predicted by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics to be 10% per year in the period betwee2015 and 2029